This post was originally part of a Carnival of Homeschooling. I decided to pull out the History of Home Education in America part and make it a post of its own. I’m not a scholar, and this is not a thesis for University. I did my best to make it as accurate as possible, but I probably made some errors- I hope more of omission than commission. Some aspects of this are subjective, of course. In some homeschooling circles one party or the other mentioned below is a villain, or at least an opportunist. I wasn’t interested in taking sides, so I skirted the disagreements.
“… I thought it essential to give them a solid education which might enable them, when become mothers, to educate their own daughters, and even to direct the course for sons, should their fathers be lost, or incapable, or inattentive. My surviving daughter accordingly, the mother of many daughters as well as sons, has made their education the object of her life.” –Thomas Jefferson to Nathaniel Burwell, 1818. ME 15:165
Jefferson did institute a plan for public education to be paid for by wealthier citizens by taxation, but the compulsory part of that education plan was in the taxes, not in attendance. He wanted public schools available to those citizens who lacked the necessary resources to provide a good education to their children. He wrote:
It is better to tolerate the rare instance of a parent refusing to let his child be educated, than to shock the common feelings and ideas by the forcible absorptation and education of the infant against the will of the father…–Thomas Jefferson: Note to Elementary School Act, 1817. ME 17:423
George Washington did not enter school until he was around 11 years old, and he would only stay for two years. He already knew how to read and write and handle numbers when he started school. His late age for starting school was really not all that late- In the U.S. 5 would not be seen as an appropriate age to begin formal schooling until the forties. The NINETEEN forties.
In 1852 Massachusetts passed the first compulsory attendance law in America. However, in 1893,
The Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts permitted home education (as opposed to child labor) in Commonwealth v. Roberts, 34 NE 402 (Mass. 1893). The court emphasized that the object of the statute is that “all children shall be educated, not that they shall be educated in a particular way.”
It is constructed upon the assumption that a group of minds can be marshalled and controlled in growth in exactly the same manner that a military officer marshalls and directs the bodily movements of a company of soldiers. In solid, unbreakable phalanx the class is supposed to move through all the grades, keeping in locked step. This locked step is set by the ‘average’ pupil–an algebraic myth born of inanimate figures and an addled pedagogy. The class system does injury to the rapid and quick-thinking pupils, because these must shackle their stride to keep pace with the mythical average. But the class system does a greater injury to the large number who make slower progress than the rate of the mythical average pupil . . . They are foredoomed to failure before they begin.
An Indiana court formally recognized the right of parents to educate their children at homein 1904 in State v. Peterman, 32 Ind. App. 665, 70 N.E. 550 (1904).
The court defined a school as
“a place where instruction is imparted to the young….. We do not think that the number of persons, whether one or many, make a place where instruction is imparted any less or any more a school.” (Peterman, at 551.)
Quoting the Roberts decision in Massachusetts, the Indiana court said:
“[T]he object and purpose of a compulsory educational law are that all the children shall be educated, not that they shall be educated in any particular way.” (Peterman, at 551.)
The Court concluded;
“The result to be obtained, and not the means or manner of attaining it, was the goal which the lawmakers were attempting to reach. The [compulsory attendance] law was made for the parent who does not educate his child, and not for the parent who … so places within the reach of the child the opportunity and means of acquiring an education equal to that obtainable in the public schools….” (Peterman, at 552.)
The Illinois Supreme Court recognized a right to teach a child at home in 1950 when it decided People v. Levisen, 404 Ill. 574, 90 N.E.2d 213 (1950). This landmark case held that a
“private school” is “a place where instruction is imparted to the young … the number of persons being taught does not determine whether a place is a school.” (404 Ill. at 576, 90 N.E.2d at 215.)
“Compulsory education laws are enacted to enforce the natural obligations of parents to provide an education for their young, an obligation which corresponds to the parents’ right of control over the child. (Meyer v. Nebraska, 262 U.S. 390, 400.) The object is that all shall be educated, not that they shall be educated in any particular manner or place.” (Levisen, 404 Ill. at 577, 90 N.E.2d at 215.)
The 20th century: There have been homeschoolers from the beginning of this century, just as there have been in every century. However, they were largely isolated from one another rather than a ‘movement’ for the first few decades of the 20th century. Gradually, however, the climate was changing to favor a more structured, institutionalized, government controlled approach to education rather than parent-controlled, and parents who wished to educate their own children began to see a need for more support. (link goes to wrong post- try here)
He began as a teacher in alternative schools, places that ought to have been progressive oases for creative learning. He grew disillusioned and by 1970 was known as an ardent proponent for school reform. He advocated for school reform in the books he published such as How Children Fail, published 1964; How Children Learn, published in 1967.
Dr. Raymond Moore also published an article in Reader’s Digest, October 1972, “When Should Your Child Go To School?”, and this was excerpted from a longer article in Harper’s magazine, July 1972,
How did Holt move so quickly from school reform to home education? - in the comments to the original 239th History of home education in America post, readers received this delightful explanation of John Holt’s ‘Light Bulb Moment’ when he realized home education was a viable alternative to public school, and certainly an improvement, from Tunya Audain, who was there:
Holt’s Light Bulb – Mexico 1972
Thanks for the history of home education and the “movement” as it started to accelerate in the 70s-80s. John Holt was certainly one of the leaders and pioneers in those early days. I had a role to play in helping John see this alternative as an option to his work he was already doing in getting “the system” to reform.
It was in 1971-72 that Ivan Illich of deschooling fame was holding seminars in Mexico. Many people from around the world attended. From an excerpt in my story, this is what I said about John’s “Aha” moment:
“Neither Illich nor any of our discussions at that time ever conceived of the notion of home education as a “movement”, though we frequently talked about home care of the sick as a movement. It was not till I had a discussion with John Holt, the author of such books as “How Children Learn” and “How Children Fail” that the movement toward home education started to percolate.
So, one morning, beneath a heavily-laden mango tree from which John partook, this was our conversation in January, 1972:
John: Now that you have completed teacher training, where are you going to teach?
Tunya: I didn’t get training to teach in a school. I took it to teach my own children.
J: Is it legal
T: Yes, I’ve studied the legislations. It’s possible across North America and England. Parents are to cause their children to obtain an education at a school or elsewhere. It’s this “elsewhere” clause that allows home education.
J: Well, at least you’re now qualified to teach them.
T: I also found out that you don’t need a qualification to teach your own children.
J. What about socialization? They’ll be different.
T: Kids should be individuals. They’ll have plenty of friends from the groups we belong to. Besides, there is a lot of negative socialization in school …
J: What if they want to go to college?
T: They will probably be strong, independent learners and will have an advantage in transferring in.
J: SMART CITY!”
Many of you folks who read this magazine believe–and with good reason–that government interferes too much in our lives. Well, I think that there is no place where this interference is less justified, more harmful, and more easily resisted than in the education of children. So it would seem to me that those who want to minimize the power the government has over their lives would find the area of their youngsters’ learning to be the first place where they’d want to work toward that goal.
The questioning moved along in what seemed a taunting or disrespectful tone, including his eyes and body language, as if to find out what kind of broom Helen had pushed. She took it all patiently, even sublimely. The attorney seemed irritated at her quiet freedom.
“Yes, sir,” she replied.
“Where did you work?”
“In Houston.” She was brief, determined not to reveal her surprise until the last moment.
“Where in Houston?”
“What did you do at NASA??” At this point he smiled indulgently, as if wondering if she worked in the restaurant or in housekeeping. This was the opportunity she had patiently waited for.
“Well, you see, I am a John’s Hopkins University astronautic electronics engineer. At NASA, I was promoted to be the first black woman in space when I discovered that my oldest son was developing serious emotional symptoms and needed me more than NASA did. So I returned to teach him at home. And he is doing very well.”
The National Education Association believes that home schooling programs cannot provide the student with a comprehensive education experience. When home schooling occurs, students enrolled must meet all state requirements. Home schooling should be limited to the children of the immediate family, with all expenses being borne by the parents/guardians. Instruction should be by persons who are licensed by the appropriate state education licensure agency, and a curriculum approved by the state department of education should be used.
- For the Children’s Sake: Foundations of Education for Home and School
- The Way Home: Beyond Feminism, Back to Reality
- What Are They Teaching Our Children?
- The How and Why of Home Schooling
- Child Abuse in the Classroom
- The big book of home learning
- Teach Your Own:A Hopeful Path for Education by John Holt
- The big book of home learning by Mary Pride (it was one or two volumes then, a couple years later it would be four. It also wasn’t the first comprehensive listing of homeschooling resources, though I didn’t know that then.)
- What Do I Do Monday, by John Holt
- Homeschooling for Excellence by David and Micki Colfax
- NEA: Trojan Horse in American Education and a couple others by Samuel L. Blumenfeld
I thought I was reading about a phonics program and discovered much that was wrong with the way public schools choose materials.The Messianic Character of American Education by Rushdooney was also an eye-opener. My husband really enjoyed this one, and that surprised me because my husband doesn’t read much except the Bible. I found it stiff going, but he loved it.Oh- and The Underground History of American Educationis online free, just click on the link to the title in this sentence.=)Ivan Illich’s Deschooling Society is also interesting and informative, if more than a bit subversive. His book is also free, the link is in this article. It’s an excellent read:
Welfare bureaucracies claim a professional, political, and financial monopoly over the social imagination, setting standards of what is valuable and what is feasible. This monopoly is at the root of the modernization of poverty. Every simple need to which an institutional answer is found permits the invention of a new class of poor and a new definition of poverty. Ten years ago in Mexico it was the normal thing to be born and to die in one’s own home and to be buried by one’s friends. Only the soul’s needs were taken care of by the institutional church. Now to begin andend life at home become signs either of poverty or of special privilege. Dying and death have come under the institutional management of doctors and undertakers.Once basic needs have been translated by a society into demands for scientifically produced commodities, poverty is defined by standards which the technocrats can change at will. Poverty then refers to those who have fallen behind an advertised ideal of consumption in some important respect.And, if you read Gatto or Richard Mitchell’s delicious Graves of Academe, you’ll come across references to a couple events in America’s public school history that are just fascinating- I wanted to know more about them.
One is the Committee of Ten, which met in 1892. You can read more about that here.The other is the later Commission of Reorganization on Secondary Education (Richard Mitchell calls it the Gang of Twenty-Seven) and you can find that out here.
Home educators as a class generally appreciate freedom and liberty. John Holt’s prophetic statement on this topic is worth framing and pondering.
“Today freedom has different enemies. It must be fought for in different ways. It will take very different qualities of mind and heart to save it.”
See my article from my blog here: http://genuine-education-reform-today.org/2010/…
You will also find a link to Illich’s downloadable books (Deschooling Society) and a link to a 5 page article I wrote: Home Education- the Third Option which helped validate the movement in Canada in the 80s. In my closing words in the article I suggest that home education is a good way to retrieve individual responsibility from “disabling” professionals and the predatory state while at the same time restoring parents to a central role in the education of their children.
Who was it that decided to force your attention onto Japan instead of Sweden? Japan with its long school year and state compulsion, instead of Sweden with its short school year, short school sequence, and free choice where your kid is schooled? Who decided you should know about Japan and not Hong Kong, an Asian neighbor with a short school year that outperforms Japan across the board in math and science?